spring-conditional

Spring @Profile allow developers to register beans by condition. For example, register beans based on what operating system (Windows, *nix) your application is running, or load a database properties file based on the application running in development, test, staging or production environment.

In this tutorial, we will show you a Spring @Profile application, which does the following stuff :

  1. Create two profiles – dev and live
  2. If profile “dev” is enabled, return a simple cache manager – ConcurrentMapCacheManager
  3. If profile “live” is enabled, return an advanced cache manager – EhCacheCacheManager
Note

  1. Spring has supported @Profile annotation since version 3.1
  2. @Profile is inside spring-context.jar

Tools used :

  1. Spring 4.1.4.RELEASE
  2. Ehcache 2.9.0
  3. JDK 1.7

1. Spring @Profile Examples

This @Profile annotation can be applied at class level or method level.

1.1 Normal Spring Configuration, enable caching, so that Spring will expect a cache manager at runtime.

AppConfig

package com.mkyong.test;

import org.springframework.cache.annotation.EnableCaching;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.ComponentScan;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;

@Configuration
@EnableCaching
@ComponentScan({ "com.mkyong.*" })
public class AppConfig {
}

1.2 A dev profile, which returns a simple cache manager concurrentMapCacheManager

CacheConfigDev.java

package com.mkyong.test;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.cache.CacheManager;
import org.springframework.cache.concurrent.ConcurrentMapCacheManager;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Profile;

@Configuration
@Profile("dev")
public class CacheConfigDev {

	private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(CacheConfigDev.class);
	
	@Bean
        public CacheManager concurrentMapCacheManager() {
		log.debug("Cache manager is concurrentMapCacheManager");
                return new ConcurrentMapCacheManager("movieFindCache");
        }
	
}

1.3 A live profile, which returns ehCacheCacheManager

CacheConfigLive.java

package com.mkyong.test;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.cache.CacheManager;
import org.springframework.cache.ehcache.EhCacheCacheManager;
import org.springframework.cache.ehcache.EhCacheManagerFactoryBean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Profile;
import org.springframework.core.io.ClassPathResource;

@Configuration
@Profile("live")
public class CacheConfigLive {

	private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(CacheConfigDev.class);
	
	@Bean
	public CacheManager cacheManager() {
		log.debug("Cache manager is ehCacheCacheManager");
		return new EhCacheCacheManager(ehCacheCacheManager().getObject());
	}

	@Bean
	public EhCacheManagerFactoryBean ehCacheCacheManager() {
		EhCacheManagerFactoryBean cmfb = new EhCacheManagerFactoryBean();
		cmfb.setConfigLocation(new ClassPathResource("ehcache.xml"));
		cmfb.setShared(true);
		return cmfb;
	}
	
}

2. Enable @Profile

Few code snippets to show you how to enable a Spring profile.

2.1 For non-web application, you can enable a profile via the Spring context environment.

App.java

package com.mkyong.test;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.context.ConfigurableApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext;

public class App {

	public static void main(String[] args) {

	  AnnotationConfigApplicationContext context = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext();
	  //Enable a "live" profile
	  context.getEnvironment().setActiveProfiles("live");
	  context.register(AppConfig.class);
	  context.refresh();
		
	  ((ConfigurableApplicationContext) context).close();

	}
}

Output


DEBUG com.mkyong.test.CacheConfigDev - Cache manager is ehCacheCacheManager

Or, via the system property like this

App.java

package com.mkyong.test;

import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.core.env.AbstractEnvironment;

public class App {

	public static void main(String[] args) {

	  //Enable a "dev" profile
	  System.setProperty(AbstractEnvironment.ACTIVE_PROFILES_PROPERTY_NAME, "dev");
	  ApplicationContext context = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext(AppConfig.class);
		
	}
}

Output


DEBUG com.mkyong.test.CacheConfigDev - Cache manager is concurrentMapCacheManager

2.2 For web application, defined a context parameter in web.xml

web.xml

	<context-param>
	    <param-name>spring.profiles.active</param-name>
	    <param-value>live</param-value>
	</context-param>

2.3 For web application don’t have web.xml, like servlet 3.0+ container

MyWebInitializer.java

package com.mkyong.servlet3;
 
import javax.servlet.ServletContext;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
 
public class MyWebInitializer extends
	AbstractAnnotationConfigDispatcherServletInitializer {
 
	//...
	@Override
	public void onStartup(ServletContext servletContext) throws ServletException {
		super.onStartup(servletContext);
		servletContext.setInitParameter("spring.profiles.active", "live");
	}
 
}

2.4 For Unit Test, uses @ActiveProfiles

CacheManagerTest.java

package com.mkyong.test;

import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Qualifier;
import org.springframework.test.context.ActiveProfiles;
import org.springframework.test.context.ContextConfiguration;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner;
import org.springframework.cache.CacheManager;

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(classes = { AppConfig.class })
@ActiveProfiles("dev")
public class CacheManagerTest {

	@Autowired
	private CacheManager cacheManager;
	
	@Test
	public void test_abc() {
		//...
	}
	
}

3. More…

3.1 Spring @Profile can apply at method level.

AppConfig.java

package com.mkyong.test;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.cache.CacheManager;
import org.springframework.cache.annotation.EnableCaching;
import org.springframework.cache.concurrent.ConcurrentMapCacheManager;
import org.springframework.cache.ehcache.EhCacheCacheManager;
import org.springframework.cache.ehcache.EhCacheManagerFactoryBean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.ComponentScan;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Profile;
import org.springframework.core.io.ClassPathResource;

@Configuration
@EnableCaching
@ComponentScan({ "com.mkyong.*" })
public class AppConfig {

	private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(AppConfig.class);
	
	@Bean
	@Profile("dev")
        public CacheManager concurrentMapCacheManager() {
		log.debug("Cache manager is concurrentMapCacheManager");
                return new ConcurrentMapCacheManager("movieFindCache");
        }
	
	@Bean
	@Profile("live")
	public CacheManager cacheManager() {
		log.debug("Cache manager is ehCacheCacheManager");
		return new EhCacheCacheManager(ehCacheCacheManager().getObject());
	}

	@Bean
	@Profile("live")
	public EhCacheManagerFactoryBean ehCacheCacheManager() {
		EhCacheManagerFactoryBean cmfb = new EhCacheManagerFactoryBean();
		cmfb.setConfigLocation(new ClassPathResource("ehcache.xml"));
		cmfb.setShared(true);
		return cmfb;
	}
	
}

3.2 You can enable multiple profiles.


	AnnotationConfigApplicationContext context = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext();
	context.getEnvironment().setActiveProfiles("live", "linux");
	//or
	System.setProperty(AbstractEnvironment.ACTIVE_PROFILES_PROPERTY_NAME, "dev, windows");
web.xml

	<context-param>
	    <param-name>spring.profiles.active</param-name>
	    <param-value>stage, postgresql</param-value>
	</context-param>

	@ActiveProfiles({"dev", "mysql","integration"})

        ((ConfigurableEnvironment)context.getEnvironment())
                   .setActiveProfiles(new String[]{"dev", "embedded"});

Download Source Code

Download It – Spring-Profiles-Example.zip (17 KB)

References

  1. Spring Profiles – Environment Abstraction
  2. Spring Caching And Ehcache Example
  3. Spring MVC – Set active profile