Spring Boot Hello World Example – Thymeleaf

In this article, we will show you how to develop a Spring Boot web application, using Thymeleaf view, embedded Tomcat and package it as an executable JAR file.

Technologies used :

  • Spring Boot 2.1.2.RELEASE
  • Spring 5.1.4.RELEASE
  • Thymeleaf 3.0.11.RELEASE
  • Tomcat embed 9.0.14
  • JUnit 4.12
  • Maven 3
  • Java 8

1. Project Directory

project directory

2. Maven

Put spring-boot-starter-web and spring-boot-starter-thymeleaf, it will get anything we need to develop a Spring MVC + Thymeleaf web application, including the embedded Tomcat server.

pom.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" 
		 xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 
		 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>web-thymeleaf</artifactId>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>
    <name>Spring Boot Web Thymeleaf Example</name>
    <description>Spring Boot Web Thymeleaf Example</description>
    <version>1.0</version>

    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>2.1.2.RELEASE</version>
    </parent>

    <properties>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <bootstrap.version>4.2.1</bootstrap.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>

        <!-- web mvc -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <!-- thymeleaf -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-thymeleaf</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <!-- test -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>

        <!-- hot swapping, disable cache for template, enable live reload -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>

        <!-- Optional, for bootstrap -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.webjars</groupId>
            <artifactId>bootstrap</artifactId>
            <version>${bootstrap.version}</version>
        </dependency>

    </dependencies>
    <build>
        <plugins>

            <!-- Package as an executable jar/war -->
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <addResources>true</addResources>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>

            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>2.22.0</version>
            </plugin>

        </plugins>

    </build>
</project>

Display the project dependencies.


$ mvn dependency:tree

[INFO] org.springframework.boot:web-thymeleaf:jar:1.0
[INFO] +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-logging:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  +- ch.qos.logback:logback-classic:jar:1.2.3:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  |  \- ch.qos.logback:logback-core:jar:1.2.3:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  +- org.apache.logging.log4j:log4j-to-slf4j:jar:2.11.1:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  |  \- org.apache.logging.log4j:log4j-api:jar:2.11.1:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  \- org.slf4j:jul-to-slf4j:jar:1.7.25:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- javax.annotation:javax.annotation-api:jar:1.3.2:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- org.yaml:snakeyaml:jar:1.23:runtime
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-json:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-databind:jar:2.9.8:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  +- com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-annotations:jar:2.9.0:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  \- com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-core:jar:2.9.8:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- com.fasterxml.jackson.datatype:jackson-datatype-jdk8:jar:2.9.8:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- com.fasterxml.jackson.datatype:jackson-datatype-jsr310:jar:2.9.8:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- com.fasterxml.jackson.module:jackson-module-parameter-names:jar:2.9.8:compile
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-tomcat:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.apache.tomcat.embed:tomcat-embed-core:jar:9.0.14:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.apache.tomcat.embed:tomcat-embed-el:jar:9.0.14:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- org.apache.tomcat.embed:tomcat-embed-websocket:jar:9.0.14:compile
[INFO] |  +- org.hibernate.validator:hibernate-validator:jar:6.0.14.Final:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- javax.validation:validation-api:jar:2.0.1.Final:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.jboss.logging:jboss-logging:jar:3.3.2.Final:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- com.fasterxml:classmate:jar:1.4.0:compile
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework:spring-web:jar:5.1.4.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- org.springframework:spring-beans:jar:5.1.4.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  \- org.springframework:spring-webmvc:jar:5.1.4.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |     +- org.springframework:spring-aop:jar:5.1.4.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |     +- org.springframework:spring-context:jar:5.1.4.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |     \- org.springframework:spring-expression:jar:5.1.4.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-thymeleaf:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  +- org.thymeleaf:thymeleaf-spring5:jar:3.0.11.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.thymeleaf:thymeleaf:jar:3.0.11.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  +- org.attoparser:attoparser:jar:2.0.5.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  \- org.unbescape:unbescape:jar:1.1.6.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- org.slf4j:slf4j-api:jar:1.7.25:compile
[INFO] |  \- org.thymeleaf.extras:thymeleaf-extras-java8time:jar:3.0.2.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-test:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:test
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-test:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:test
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-test-autoconfigure:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:test
[INFO] |  +- com.jayway.jsonpath:json-path:jar:2.4.0:test
[INFO] |  |  \- net.minidev:json-smart:jar:2.3:test
[INFO] |  |     \- net.minidev:accessors-smart:jar:1.2:test
[INFO] |  |        \- org.ow2.asm:asm:jar:5.0.4:test
[INFO] |  +- junit:junit:jar:4.12:test
[INFO] |  +- org.assertj:assertj-core:jar:3.11.1:test
[INFO] |  +- org.mockito:mockito-core:jar:2.23.4:test
[INFO] |  |  +- net.bytebuddy:byte-buddy:jar:1.9.7:test
[INFO] |  |  +- net.bytebuddy:byte-buddy-agent:jar:1.9.7:test
[INFO] |  |  \- org.objenesis:objenesis:jar:2.6:test
[INFO] |  +- org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:jar:1.3:test
[INFO] |  +- org.hamcrest:hamcrest-library:jar:1.3:test
[INFO] |  +- org.skyscreamer:jsonassert:jar:1.5.0:test
[INFO] |  |  \- com.vaadin.external.google:android-json:jar:0.0.20131108.vaadin1:test
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework:spring-core:jar:5.1.4.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- org.springframework:spring-jcl:jar:5.1.4.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework:spring-test:jar:5.1.4.RELEASE:test
[INFO] |  \- org.xmlunit:xmlunit-core:jar:2.6.2:test
[INFO] |     \- javax.xml.bind:jaxb-api:jar:2.3.1:test
[INFO] |        \- javax.activation:javax.activation-api:jar:1.2.0:test
[INFO] +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-devtools:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:compile (optional)
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  \- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-autoconfigure:jar:2.1.2.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] \- org.webjars:bootstrap:jar:4.2.1:compile
[INFO]    +- org.webjars:jquery:jar:3.0.0:compile
[INFO]    \- org.webjars:popper.js:jar:1.14.3:compile

3. Developer Tools


	<dependency>
		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
		<optional>true</optional>
	</dependency>

This spring-boot-devtools helps to disable the caches and enable hot swapping so that developers will always see the last changes. Good for development. Read this – Spring Boot – Developer tools Try to modify the Thymeleaf templates or properties files, refresh the browser to see the changes take effect immediately.

4. Spring Boot + MVC

4.1 A simple controller.

WelcomeController.java

package com.mkyong.controller;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.ui.Model;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestParam;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

@Controller
public class WelcomeController {

    // inject via application.properties
    @Value("${welcome.message}")
    private String message;

    private List<String> tasks = Arrays.asList("a", "b", "c", "d", "e", "f", "g");

    @GetMapping("/")
    public String main(Model model) {
        model.addAttribute("message", message);
        model.addAttribute("tasks", tasks);

        return "welcome"; //view
    }

    // /hello?name=kotlin
    @GetMapping("/hello")
    public String mainWithParam(
            @RequestParam(name = "name", required = false, defaultValue = "") 
			String name, Model model) {

        model.addAttribute("message", name);

        return "welcome"; //view
    }

}

4.2 Create a class and annotate with @SpringBootApplication. In IDE, run this class to start the entire web application.

StartWebApplication.java

package com.mkyong;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

@SpringBootApplication
public class StartWebApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(StartWebApplication.class, args);
    }

}

5. Thymeleaf + Static files

Note
Read this Spring Boot Serving static content to understand the resource mapping.

5.1 For Thymeleaf template files, put in src/main/resources/templates/

src/main/resources/templates/welcome.html

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html lang="en" xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org">
<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, shrink-to-fit=no">

    <title>Spring Boot Thymeleaf Hello World Example</title>

    <link rel="stylesheet" th:href="@{webjars/bootstrap/4.2.1/css/bootstrap.min.css}"/>
    <link rel="stylesheet" th:href="@{/css/main.css}"/>

</head>

<body>

<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-md navbar-dark bg-dark fixed-top">
    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Mkyong.com</a>
</nav>

<main role="main" class="container">

    <div class="starter-template">
        <h1>Spring Boot Web Thymeleaf Example</h1>
        <h2>
            <span th:text="'Hello, ' + ${message}"></span>
        </h2>
    </div>

    <ol>
        <li th:each="task : ${tasks}" th:text="${task}"></li>
    </ol>

</main>
<!-- /.container -->

<script type="text/javascript" th:src="@{webjars/bootstrap/4.2.1/js/bootstrap.min.js}"></script>
</body>
</html>

5.2 Spring Boot common application properties

src/main/resources/application.properties

welcome.message: Mkyong

spring.thymeleaf.cache=false

5.3 For Static files like CSS or JS, put in src/main/resources/static/

src/main/resources/static/css/main.css

body {
  padding-top: 5rem;
}
.starter-template {
  padding: 3rem 1.5rem;
  text-align: center;
}

h1{
	color:#0000FF;
}

h2{
	color:#FF0000;
}

6. Unit Test

MockMvc to test the Spring MVC controller.

WelcomeControllerTest.java

package com.mkyong;

import com.mkyong.controller.WelcomeController;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.web.servlet.WebMvcTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MvcResult;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.ResultActions;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.ModelAndView;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.containsString;
import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.is;
import static org.hamcrest.core.IsEqual.equalTo;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.get;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.*;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@WebMvcTest(controllers = WelcomeController.class)
public class WelcomeControllerTest {

    @Autowired
    private MockMvc mockMvc;

    List<String> expectedList = Arrays.asList("a", "b", "c", "d", "e", "f", "g");

    @Test
    public void main() throws Exception {
        ResultActions resultActions = mockMvc.perform(get("/"))
                .andExpect(status().isOk())
                .andExpect(view().name("welcome"))
                .andExpect(model().attribute("message", equalTo("Mkyong")))
                .andExpect(model().attribute("tasks", is(expectedList)))
                .andExpect(content().string(containsString("Hello, Mkyong")));

        MvcResult mvcResult = resultActions.andReturn();
        ModelAndView mv = mvcResult.getModelAndView();
        //
    }

    // Get request with Param
    @Test
    public void hello() throws Exception {
        mockMvc.perform(get("/hello").param("name", "I Love Kotlin!"))
                .andExpect(status().isOk())
                .andExpect(view().name("welcome"))
                .andExpect(model().attribute("message", equalTo("I Love Kotlin!")))
                .andExpect(content().string(containsString("Hello, I Love Kotlin!")));
    }


}

7. Demo


$ mvn spring-boot:run

: Tomcat initialized with port(s): 8080 (http)
: Starting service [Tomcat]
: Starting Servlet engine: [Apache Tomcat/9.0.14]

: Tomcat started on port(s): 8080 (http) with context path ''
 Started StartWebApplication in 1.858 seconds (JVM running for 2.222)

URL = http://localhost:8080

URL = http://localhost:8080/hello?name=abc

8. Create an executable JAR

For deployment, just normal Maven package to create an executable JAR file.


$ mvn clean package

$ java -jar target\web-thymeleaf-1.0.jar

Download Source Code

$ git clone https://github.com/mkyong/spring-boot.git
$ cd web-thymeleaf
$ mvn spring-boot:run

References

About the Author

author image
mkyong
Founder of Mkyong.com, love Java and open source stuff. Follow him on Twitter. If you like my tutorials, consider make a donation to these charities.

Comments

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21 Comment threads
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25 Comment authors
junhyukAnuragIgorwangmkyong Recent comment authors
newest oldest most voted
David
Guest
David

Hi, what is the correct way to change the .html files path? I want them inside webapp/WEB-INF/templates. I’ve tried with the templateResolver setPrefix official thymeleaf doc, adding at my application.yml the spring:thymeleaf:prefix: classpath:WEB-INF/templates (without classpath…) with another @bean definitios in stackoverflow but not working in any way… Any idea or advice?

sipun
Guest
sipun

Why I am getting 404 error

mkyong
Guest
mkyong

article is updated, try again with mvn spring-boot:run

imran khan
Guest
imran khan

only Return…. welcome message not welcome.html page….

dinesh
Guest
dinesh

I built my project exactly same as explained here. but I keep getting the whitelabel error page 404.

Joohi
Guest
Joohi

same here…

debascoguy
Guest
debascoguy

To those having errors with this example, simple comment out this dependency line of code from your “pom.xml” file
Then, build and Run your application.

org.springframework.boot
spring-boot-devtools
true

debascoguy
Guest
debascoguy

To those having errors with this example, simple comment out this line of code from your pom.xml
Then, build and Run your application.

org.springframework.boot
spring-boot-devtools
true

Gagan
Guest
Gagan

Hey mkyong/others,

Please help me. I am getting this error in pom.xml on importing the package.

Project build error: Non-resolvable parent POM for org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-web-thymeleaf:1.0: Failure to transfer
org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-parent:pom:1.4.2.RELEASE from https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2 was cached
in the local repository, resolution will not be reattempted until the update interval of central has elapsed or updates are forced.
Original error: Could not transfer artifact org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-parent:pom:1.4.2.RELEASE from/to central
(https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2): sun.security.validator.ValidatorException: PKIX path building failed:
sun.security.provider.certpath.SunCertPathBuilderException: unable to find valid certification path to requested target and
‘parent.relativePath’ points at wrong local POM

Thank You

sai
Guest
sai

Did u get the solution for this?

Saulo Falcão
Guest
Saulo Falcão

” org.springframework.boot spring-boot-starter-web “

junhyuk
Guest
junhyuk

thank you for good posting!

Anurag
Guest
Anurag

don’t we have to return a model and view from controller method, so that Html file will get picked up ?

Igor
Guest
Igor

Hi!
Why, at the added dependence spring-boot-starter-mvc in an example “webflux-thymeleaf” there is mistake?
How to overcome it?

org.thymeleaf.exceptions.TemplateInputException: An error happened during template parsing (template: “class path resource [templates/index.html]”)

Caused by: org.springframework.expression.spel.SpelEvaluationException: EL1008E: Property or field ‘name’ cannot be found on object of type ‘org.thymeleaf.spring5.context.webflux.ReactiveDataDriverContextVariable’ – maybe not public or not valid?
at org.springframework.expression.spel.ast.PropertyOrFieldReference.readProperty(PropertyOrFieldReference.java:217)

wang
Guest
wang

Why can it be used without importing the jQuery.js file?

jerome villiseck
Guest
jerome villiseck

be careful not to place directly :
– WelcomeController.java
– StartWebApplication.java
under the folder java directly.

You must put the controller and the main class at least in a package (or many subpackages) with the name of your choice, otherwise the application will not launch.

The command mvn dependancy:tree may not work with windows.

yzg
Guest
yzg

I met 404 error first, then i use spring boot version 2.0.5.RELEASE instead and get success.

mkyong
Guest
mkyong

This example is tested with Spring Boot 2.1.2.RELEASE, for those who hits errors, the first try is upgrade your Spring Boot to latest.

Dave
Guest
Dave

Thanks!

Ranjith Kumar
Guest
Ranjith Kumar

Hi , I Want to load css and js into my jsp page but it is not loaded only the html contenet is displayed , where is the mistake,what i have missed, Anybody know post your answers. Here my web.xml Spring MVC Static Resources spring org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet contextConfigLocation /WEB-INF/spring-servlet.xml 1 spring / <!– org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener contextConfigLocation /WEB-INF/spring-core-servlet.xml –> Servlet.xml /WEB-INF/pages/ .jsp

veeresh
Guest
veeresh

whats the use of thymeleaf in spring boot

Rohit Basu
Guest
Rohit Basu

I have an issue in deploying the war file deployed in tomcat 8.5. i log the issue in https://stackoverflow.com/questions/47294386/issues-in-spring-boot-war-file-deployment-in-tomcat-server
Let me know if you have any solution

yoga
Guest
yoga

please help me, i have error for build spring boot using maven for deploy to apache tomcat 7, my css file success to load like , but my javascript file and has error message Failed to load resource: the server responded with a status of 404 (Not Found). how to config maven or tomcat for show /cms for js file?

yoga
Guest
yoga

css href=”/cms/webjars/bootstrap/3.3.6/css/bootstrap.min.css” and js src=”/webjars/bootstrap/3.3.6/js/bootstrap.min.js”

Tugrul
Guest
Tugrul

css files couldn’t include. I did like your sample but I got this error “NetworkError: 404 Not Found – http://localhost:8080/static/css/main.css“. How can I solve this?

Danntu
Guest
Danntu

Brother, you can’t be looking directly, cause it’s Spring Boot. You @RequestMapping (“/”) it mean http://localhost:8080/

Loi Nguyen
Guest
Loi Nguyen

1. add

org.webjars
webjars-locator

2. remove /static/ , only href=/css/main.css

Saulo Falcão
Guest
Saulo Falcão

Hey, I got the error message: “Error resolving template “welcome”, template might not exist or might not be accessible by any of the configured Template Resolvers”.

Then I found this thread on StackOverflow ( https://stackoverflow.com/questions/44361064/error-resolving-template-welcome-template-might-not-exist-or-might-not-be-acc )

I just added the following dependency and it worked:
org.springframework.boot spring-boot-starter-web

Banti kumar
Guest
Banti kumar

Can you suggest me that how can I con configure jsp views in Spring Boot. I have also used thymeleaf worked perfectly but there is some issues in jsp. Please help me as soon as possible.

Thank you,
Banti kumar