Spring REST Error Handling Example

In this article, we will show you error handling in Spring Boot REST application.

Technologies used :

  • Spring Boot 2.1.2.RELEASE
  • Spring 5.1.4.RELEASE
  • Maven 3
  • Java 8

1. /error

1.1 By default, Spring Boot provides a BasicErrorController controller for /error mapping that handles all errors, and getErrorAttributes to produce a JSON response with details of the error, the HTTP status, and the exception message.


{	
	"timestamp":"2019-02-27T04:03:52.398+0000",
	"status":500,
	"error":"Internal Server Error",
	"message":"...",
	"path":"/path"
}
BasicErrorController.java

package org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error;

//...

@Controller
@RequestMapping("${server.error.path:${error.path:/error}}")
public class BasicErrorController extends AbstractErrorController {

	//...

	@RequestMapping
	public ResponseEntity<Map<String, Object>> error(HttpServletRequest request) {
		Map<String, Object> body = getErrorAttributes(request,
				isIncludeStackTrace(request, MediaType.ALL));
		HttpStatus status = getStatus(request);
		return new ResponseEntity<>(body, status);
	}

In the IDE, puts a breakpoint in this method, you will understand how Spring Boot generates the default JSON error response.

2. Custom Exception

In Spring Boot, we can use @ControllerAdvice to handle custom exceptions.

2.1 A custom exception.

BookNotFoundException.java

package com.mkyong.error;

public class BookNotFoundException extends RuntimeException {

    public BookNotFoundException(Long id) {
        super("Book id not found : " + id);
    }

}

A controller, if a book id is not found, throws the above BookNotFoundException

BookController.java

package com.mkyong;

//...

@RestController
public class BookController {

    @Autowired
    private BookRepository repository;
	
    // Find
    @GetMapping("/books/{id}")
    Book findOne(@PathVariable Long id) {
        return repository.findById(id)
                .orElseThrow(() -> new BookNotFoundException(id));
    }

	//...
}

By default, Spring Boot generates the following JSON error response, http 500 error.

Terminal

curl localhost:8080/books/5

{
	"timestamp":"2019-02-27T04:03:52.398+0000",
	"status":500,
	"error":"Internal Server Error",
	"message":"Book id not found : 5",
	"path":"/books/5"
}

2.2 If a book id not found, it should return a 404 error instead of 500, we can override the status code like this :

CustomGlobalExceptionHandler.java

package com.mkyong.error;

import org.springframework.http.HttpHeaders;
import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.web.bind.MethodArgumentNotValidException;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ExceptionHandler;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestControllerAdvice;
import org.springframework.web.context.request.WebRequest;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation.ResponseEntityExceptionHandler;

import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import javax.validation.ConstraintViolationException;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;

@ControllerAdvice
public class CustomGlobalExceptionHandler extends ResponseEntityExceptionHandler {

    // Let Spring BasicErrorController handle the exception, we just override the status code
    @ExceptionHandler(BookNotFoundException.class)
    public void springHandleNotFound(HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException {
        response.sendError(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND.value());
    }

	//...
}

2.3 It returns a 404 now.

Terminal

curl localhost:8080/books/5

{
	"timestamp":"2019-02-27T04:21:17.740+0000",
	"status":404,
	"error":"Not Found",
	"message":"Book id not found : 5",
	"path":"/books/5"
}

2.4 Furthermore, we can customize the entire JSON error response :

CustomErrorResponse.java

package com.mkyong.error;

import com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonFormat;

import java.time.LocalDateTime;

public class CustomErrorResponse {

    @JsonFormat(shape = JsonFormat.Shape.STRING, pattern = "yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss")
    private LocalDateTime timestamp;
    private int status;
    private String error;

    //...getters setters
}
CustomGlobalExceptionHandler.java

package com.mkyong.error;

import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ExceptionHandler;
import org.springframework.web.context.request.WebRequest;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation.ResponseEntityExceptionHandler;

import java.time.LocalDateTime;

@ControllerAdvice
public class CustomGlobalExceptionHandler extends ResponseEntityExceptionHandler {

    @ExceptionHandler(BookNotFoundException.class)
    public ResponseEntity<CustomErrorResponse> customHandleNotFound(Exception ex, WebRequest request) {

        CustomErrorResponse errors = new CustomErrorResponse();
        errors.setTimestamp(LocalDateTime.now());
        errors.setError(ex.getMessage());
        errors.setStatus(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND.value());

        return new ResponseEntity<>(errors, HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND);

    }

	//...
}
Terminal

curl localhost:8080/books/5
{
	"timestamp":"2019-02-27 12:40:45",
	"status":404,
	"error":"Book id not found : 5"
}

3. JSR 303 Validation error

3.1 For Spring @valid validation errors, it will throw handleMethodArgumentNotValid

CustomGlobalExceptionHandler.java

package com.mkyong.error;

import org.springframework.http.HttpHeaders;
import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.web.bind.MethodArgumentNotValidException;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ExceptionHandler;
import org.springframework.web.context.request.WebRequest;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation.ResponseEntityExceptionHandler;

import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import javax.validation.ConstraintViolationException;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.LinkedHashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;

@ControllerAdvice
public class CustomGlobalExceptionHandler extends ResponseEntityExceptionHandler {

    //...

    // @Validate For Validating Path Variables and Request Parameters
    @ExceptionHandler(ConstraintViolationException.class)
    public void constraintViolationException(HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException {
        response.sendError(HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST.value());
    }

    // error handle for @Valid
    @Override
    protected ResponseEntity<Object>
    handleMethodArgumentNotValid(MethodArgumentNotValidException ex,
                                 HttpHeaders headers,
                                 HttpStatus status, WebRequest request) {

        Map<String, Object> body = new LinkedHashMap<>();
        body.put("timestamp", new Date());
        body.put("status", status.value());

        //Get all fields errors
        List<String> errors = ex.getBindingResult()
                .getFieldErrors()
                .stream()
                .map(x -> x.getDefaultMessage())
                .collect(Collectors.toList());

        body.put("errors", errors);

        return new ResponseEntity<>(body, headers, status);

    }

}

4. ResponseEntityExceptionHandler

4.1 If we are not sure, what exception was thrown by the Spring Boot, puts a breakpoint in this method for debugging.

ResponseEntityExceptionHandler.java

package org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation;

//...
public abstract class ResponseEntityExceptionHandler {

	@ExceptionHandler({
			HttpRequestMethodNotSupportedException.class,
			HttpMediaTypeNotSupportedException.class,
			HttpMediaTypeNotAcceptableException.class,
			MissingPathVariableException.class,
			MissingServletRequestParameterException.class,
			ServletRequestBindingException.class,
			ConversionNotSupportedException.class,
			TypeMismatchException.class,
			HttpMessageNotReadableException.class,
			HttpMessageNotWritableException.class,
			MethodArgumentNotValidException.class,
			MissingServletRequestPartException.class,
			BindException.class,
			NoHandlerFoundException.class,
			AsyncRequestTimeoutException.class
		})
	@Nullable
	public final ResponseEntity<Object> handleException(Exception ex, WebRequest request) throws Exception {
		HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();

		if (ex instanceof HttpRequestMethodNotSupportedException) {
			HttpStatus status = HttpStatus.METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED;
			return handleHttpRequestMethodNotSupported((HttpRequestMethodNotSupportedException) ex, headers, status, request);
		}
		else if (ex instanceof HttpMediaTypeNotSupportedException) {
			HttpStatus status = HttpStatus.UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE;
			return handleHttpMediaTypeNotSupported((HttpMediaTypeNotSupportedException) ex, headers, status, request);
		}
		//...
	}

	//...

}

5. DefaultErrorAttributes

5.1 To override the default JSON error response for all exceptions, create a bean and extends DefaultErrorAttributes

CustomErrorAttributes.java

package com.mkyong.error;

import org.springframework.boot.web.servlet.error.DefaultErrorAttributes;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
import org.springframework.web.context.request.WebRequest;

import java.text.DateFormat;
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.Map;

@Component
public class CustomErrorAttributes extends DefaultErrorAttributes {

    private static final DateFormat dateFormat = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy/MM/dd HH:mm:ss");

    @Override
    public Map<String, Object> getErrorAttributes(WebRequest webRequest, boolean includeStackTrace) {

        // Let Spring handle the error first, we will modify later :)
        Map<String, Object> errorAttributes = super.getErrorAttributes(webRequest, includeStackTrace);

        // format & update timestamp
        Object timestamp = errorAttributes.get("timestamp");
        if (timestamp == null) {
            errorAttributes.put("timestamp", dateFormat.format(new Date()));
        } else {
            errorAttributes.put("timestamp", dateFormat.format((Date) timestamp));
        }

        // insert a new key
        errorAttributes.put("version", "1.2");

        return errorAttributes;

    }

}

Now, the date time is formatted and a new field – version is added to the JSON error response.


curl localhost:8080/books/5

{
	"timestamp":"2019/02/27 13:34:24",
	"status":404,
	"error":"Not Found",
	"message":"Book id not found : 5",
	"path":"/books/5",
	"version":"1.2"
}

curl localhost:8080/abc

{
	"timestamp":"2019/02/27 13:35:10",
	"status":404,
	"error":"Not Found",
	"message":"No message available",
	"path":"/abc",
	"version":"1.2"
}

Done.

Download Source Code

$ git clone https://github.com/mkyong/spring-boot.git
$ cd spring-rest-error-handling
$ mvn spring-boot:run

References

About the Author

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mkyong
Founder of Mkyong.com, love Java and open source stuff. Follow him on Twitter. If you like my tutorials, consider make a donation to these charities.

Comments

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SacPawelVigneshSupriamartin mucha Recent comment authors
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Pawel
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Pawel

Hi, great tutorial as usual. I encountered a very strange behaviour when extending ResponseEntityExceptionHandler. Simply creating a class that extends ResponseEntityExceptionHandler and annotating it with @ControllerAdvice causes the default JSON body not to be produced any more. Any error (e.g. TypeMismatchException) causes an empty body being returned. The moment I delete the class the default JSON response is produced. If I override an exception handler (e.g. for TypeMismatchException) it works as expected but other exceptions that are not overridden produce empty JSON response.
Have you seen a behaviour like that in your experience?

martin mucha
Guest
martin mucha

Hi, just want to thank you. There are myriads of “how-to” which are out of date or simply not funcitonal or not complete. Your article shed some light to places I was still missing. Thanks, good work.

Sac
Guest
Sac

Nice

Supria
Guest
Supria

I have configured @ControllerAdvice correctly it seems but its is working only when i throw an exception explicitly like “throw new xyzException()” else if there is say Unauthorized error/ Bad request error, it is not working. Any idea on this?

Vignesh
Guest
Vignesh

Hi @Supria, you need to write a code to handle that exception in exception handler or you have to write code to handle generic exception(i.e Exception) it will catch the exception and parse it as response object.