Struts 2 dynamic image example

In this tutorial, we show you how to generate a dynamic image in Struts 2, via custom result type. For example,

<img src="<s:url action='ImageAction?imageId=darksouls.jpg' />" />

The value of imageId is the image name in your server path. In above case, the ImageAction class will output the image file based on the imageId paramater.

Tools and Struts used in this tutorial :

  1. Struts
  2. Eclipse 3.7
  3. Maven 3

1. Directory Structure

Directory structure of this tutorial. Review the image file path.

struts2 dynamic image directory structure

2. Action class

File : – A normal action, do nothing.

package com.mkyong.image.action;
import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionSupport;
public class DisplayAction extends ActionSupport  {

File : – core action class, to get the image based on the provided imageId parameter and convert it into bytes array.

package com.mkyong.image.action;
import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;
import javax.imageio.ImageIO;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ServletRequestAware;
import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionSupport;
public class ImageAction extends ActionSupport implements ServletRequestAware {
	byte[] imageInByte = null;
	String imageId;
	private HttpServletRequest servletRequest;
	public String getImageId() {
		return imageId;
	public void setImageId(String imageId) {
		this.imageId = imageId;
	public ImageAction() {
	public String execute() {
		return SUCCESS;
	public byte[] getCustomImageInBytes() {
		System.out.println("imageId" + imageId);
		BufferedImage originalImage;
		try {
			originalImage =;
			// convert BufferedImage to byte array
			ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
			ImageIO.write(originalImage, "jpg", baos);
			imageInByte = baos.toByteArray();
		} catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
		return imageInByte;
	private File getImageFile(String imageId) {
		String filePath = servletRequest.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/");
		File file = new File(filePath + "/Image/", imageId);
		return file;
	public String getCustomContentType() {
		return "image/jpeg";
	public String getCustomContentDisposition() {
		return "anyname.jpg";
	public void setServletRequest(HttpServletRequest request) {
		this.servletRequest = request;

3. Custom Result Type

A custom result type, and output the image to browser.

File :

package com.mkyong.image.result;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import org.apache.struts2.ServletActionContext;
import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionInvocation;
import com.opensymphony.xwork2.Result;
import com.mkyong.image.action.ImageAction;
public class CustomImageBytesResult implements Result {
	public void execute(ActionInvocation invocation) throws Exception {
		ImageAction action = (ImageAction) invocation.getAction();
		HttpServletResponse response = ServletActionContext.getResponse();

4. Struts.xml

See how everything is linked together.

File : struts.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
"-//Apache Software Foundation//DTD Struts Configuration 2.0//EN"
	<package name="image" namespace="/Image" extends="struts-default">
			<result-type name="imageResult"
				class="com.mkyong.image.result.CustomImageBytesResult" />
		<action name="Display" class="com.mkyong.image.action.DisplayAction">
		<action name="ImageAction" class="com.mkyong.image.action.ImageAction">
			<result name="success" type="imageResult">

5. JSP Page

A JSP page to display the dynamic image via ImageAction.

File : display.jsp

<%@ page contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"%>
<%@ taglib prefix="s" uri="/struts-tags"%>
	<h1>Struts 2 Dynamic Image Example</h1>
	<img src=" <s:url action='ImageAction?imageId=darksouls.jpg' />" />

6. Demo

See output.


struts2 dynamic image demo

Download Source Code

Download It – (26kb)


  1. Struts2 display dynamic image as array of bytes
  2. image servlet example
  3. Struts2 URL tag example
  4. Convert image to bytes of array in Java
  5. Struts2 stream result example
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  • Saran

    Thanks for the examples

    can u tell How to do this application in springMVC

    what is the spring tag used to display image like the tag (” “) used in struts.


  • Nirmal

    i need to upload the image in one Jsp and have to display it in another jsp through struts2 action.

  • mats

    whenever I need some initial input for a new idea I might have and I google it you’re allways among the top 5 links and I allways know it will be helpful to check it out. you’re doing good work.


    • Claudiu

      Agree, great job! Excellent blog!!!!

  • brahmareddy

    display image by storing the server is good but the major problem is storing image and displaying image into database.
    i have done storing image into data base using struts
    but by retrieving it’s coming as a stream or
    based o the parameter we used.
    can anyone help me how to retrieve image from database and display on jsp.

  • g_07

    thanks but not sure why it’s not working for me. i debug the project but it doesn’t seem to trigger the ImageAction class at all.

    also the page display without error only not showing any images. any help would be great.

  • Wade

    hi, there’s problem when i’m doing my own experiment according your
    i’m using convention plugin-in so i configured like this
    @Result(name=”inputFile”, type=”imageResult”)

    but got a error. The Result type [common.util.CustomizeStreamResult] which is defined in the Result annotation on the class [class action.CustomizeResultTypeAction] or determined by the file extension or is the default result type for the PackageConfig of the action, could not be found as a result-type defined for the Struts/XWork package [action#convention-default#] – [unknown location]

    could you tell me where’s the problem?

    Thank you!

  • http://na janice


    Thanks for the examples, they are great!

    I am trying to implement you example into my website, reason, there are some jars missing in the download example. I was able to incorporate the example into my website, yet I am getting an error ‘404 error’. In the struts.xml file, I have used your package and namespace =”/Image”, but still getting ‘404 error’? I would think that struts.xml file is the only place to tell the server where to look for the jsp and action associated?


  • Thibaut

    Thank you for sharing.

    When I compile, I have the following error:

    There is no result type defined for type ‘imageResult’ mapped with name ‘success’. Did you mean ‘imageResult’?

    Do you have any ideas to solve this problem?

    Thank you.