Struts 2 ActionError & ActionMessage Example

A tutorial to show the use of the Struts 2’s ActionError and ActionMessage class.

1. ActionError – is used to send error feedback message to user – display via <s:actionerror/>.

<s:if test="hasActionErrors()">
   <div class="errors">

2. ActionMessage – is used to send information feedback message to user, display via <s:actionmessage/>.

<s:if test="hasActionMessages()">
   <div class="welcome">

Here’s a simple login form, display the error message (actionerror) if the username is not equal to “mkyong”, otherwise redirect to another page and display the a welcome message (actionmessage). In addition, all the label and error messages are retrieve from the resource bundle (properties file).

1. Folder Structure

See this project structure

Struts 2 Login Folder Structure

2. Properties file

Two properties files to store the messages.

#Welcome messages
welcome.hello = Hello
#error message
username.required = Username is required
password.required = Password is required

#Global messages
global.username = Username
global.password = Password
global.submit = Submit
global.reset = Reset

3. Action

A classic action class, do a simple checking to make sure the username is equal to “mkyong”, and set the error message with addActionError() or successful message with addActionMessage().

package com.mkyong.user.action;
import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionSupport;
public class LoginAction extends ActionSupport{
	private String username;
	private String password;
	public String getPassword() {
		return password;
	public void setPassword(String password) {
		this.password = password;
	public String getUsername() {
		return username;
	public void setUsername(String username) {
		this.username = username;
	//business logic
	public String execute() {
		return "SUCCESS";
	//simple validation
	public void validate(){
			addActionMessage("You are valid user!");
			addActionError("I don't know you, dont try to hack me!");

4. JSP View

Two simple JSP pages with css style to customize the error message.


<%@ page contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8" %>
<%@ taglib prefix="s" uri="/struts-tags" %>
<style type="text/css">
.errors {
	border:1px solid #CC0000;
.errors li{ 
	list-style: none; 
<h1>Struts 2 ActionError &amp; ActionMessage Example</h1>
<s:if test="hasActionErrors()">
   <div class="errors">
<s:form action="validateUser">
	<s:textfield key="global.username" name="username"/>
	<s:password key="global.password" name="password"/>
	<s:submit key="global.submit" name="submit"/>


<%@ page contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8" %>
<%@ taglib prefix="s" uri="/struts-tags" %>
<style type="text/css">
.welcome {
	border:1px solid #009900;
.welcome li{ 
	list-style: none; 
<h1>Struts 2 Struts 2 ActionError &amp; ActionMessage Example</h1>
<s:if test="hasActionMessages()">
   <div class="welcome">
<s:property value="getText('welcome.hello')" /> : 
<s:property value="username"/>

5. struts.xml

Link all together.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
"-//Apache Software Foundation//DTD Struts Configuration 2.0//EN"
  <constant name="struts.custom.i18n.resources" value="global" />
  <package name="user" namespace="/user" extends="struts-default">
     <action name="login">
     <action name="validateUser" class="com.mkyong.user.action.LoginAction">
	 <result name="SUCCESS">pages/welcome.jsp</result>
	 <result name="input">pages/login.jsp</result>
In Struts 2, the functionality and usage of ActionError & ActionMessage are quite similar with Struts 1.

6. Run it


Struts 2 ActionError 1

Username is invalid, display error message with <s:actionerror/>

Struts 2 ActionError 2

Username is valid, display welcome message <s:actionmessage/>

Struts 2 ActionError 3


  1. ValidationAware documentation
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  • Dheeraj

    Hi my struts 2 validation is working fine in WAS 6.1
    but when i migrated the application to WAS 8.5 its showing me following errors
    filter E service SRVE8109W: Uncaught exception thrown by filter struts2: java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidatorFactory (initialization failure)
    at java.lang.J9VMInternals.initialize(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidatorFileParser.addValidatorConfigs(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidatorFileParser.parseActionValidatorConfigs(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.AnnotationActionValidatorManager.loadFile(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.AnnotationActionValidatorManager.buildAliasValidatorConfigs(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.AnnotationActionValidatorManager.buildValidatorConfigs(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.AnnotationActionValidatorManager.getValidators(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.AnnotationActionValidatorManager.validate(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.AnnotationActionValidatorManager.validate(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.AnnotationActionValidatorManager.validate(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidationInterceptor.doBeforeInvocation(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(
    at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.validation.AnnotationValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(
    at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor

  • Suresh

    Hi Mkyong,
    I have one requirement in my project.That is Websphere Application Server 8.5 Default cache (Dynamis Cache).
    How to cofigure and how to write java code this in struts 2.Could you please tell me some sample example on this topic.Early reply that will be great for me.


  • kanishk kumar

    Actually , I am not getting how to create Properties file with which extension.

  • AnhMV

    Thanks you for this post

  • Bb

    Is it possible to do the validation on a helper class instead of in the action class itself? Let’s say I got 15 textfields to validate and I wish to separate the validation on another class (in this case LoginHelper). How should I go about doing this?

    • AJ

      u can try validation through XML file also…

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  • chethana

    Sir, How to display action message in a popup window?

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  • Ebi

    How about if I want to use the addActionMessage method in a class that is not extending ActionSupport but using @Action ?

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  • somu

    in my web application i need to set link in error msg

    addActionError(&quot;User not logged in. &lt;a href=\&quot;logon\&quot;&gt;Click Here&lt;/a&gt; to log in&quot;);&quot;

    The problem is the html text appears as normal text and does not appear as a link to click on.

  • somu

    in my web application
    addActionError(“User not logged in. Click Here to log in”);

  • Gaurav Dighe

    There needs some changes in the struts.xml. Instead of


    We need to change it to


    • Gaurav Dighe

      Sir, kindly confirm the changes

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  • joy

    I use this:

    In jsp . But it shows “welcome.hello” not “Hello”, why ?
    It didn’t get the value in the properties. I didn’t declare the in struts.xml.

    Thanks .

    • joy

      Sorry, missing something.

      I use this:

      In jsp

      • joy

        It also missing.

        • Kasturi

          For accessing the Properties file data.., you need to configure the property file with struts.xml as follows..
          <constant name="struts.custom.i18n.resources"
          value="then value=Resource)>”/>

          please try again after configure the struts.xml.
          it will help you.


          • Kasturi

            sorry i missed out..
            please check.



  • pallavi

    this isn’t working
    showing error: Can not find the tag library descriptor for “/struts-tags”
    how to resolve this

    and in struts2 i did the same no messages are being displayed

    • Kasturi

      You need to add the struts jar. properly,then you can access ‘/struts-tags’ in tag lib..


  • mehmet

    Hello, good example thank you; but what if we have a warning neither error or message! What can we do then?

  • Sandeep

    Hello Sir,
    First of all hats-off for such a nice tutorial link.It really helps me to learn latest technologies.I just want to add a suggestion that please upload different examples with different name so user can easily import a new example without editing the older one…

  • venu

    how to clear Action and error messages

  • venu


    how to clear this Error Message in Struts


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  • Siregar

    return input while combine with interceptor, why and how can i solve it? thank you

  • RAMU

    i have a problem in struts2, am new for this,multiple form page data not visible in final jsp, can u solve it


    There is no Action mapped for namespace / and action name .

    description The requested resource (There is no Action mapped for namespace / and action name .) is not available.

    how to solve this problem

  • Salman

    Hello Mr Young.I have a doubt here.In the struts config file we have the following actions defined.



    when the user enters the url /user/logic.action the login.jsp page is displayed.then if user enters the password and all the details how the user is autmatically forwarded to ValidateUser action.Also there is no action class defined for login action.Then how the user name and password are stored in the action class and then are available in validateUser action.Please let me know if my question is not clear.

    Many Thanks

  • Diego

    How can I do it if in the properties file want to replace a parameter for a determinated value? for example:

    #error message
    username.required = Username is required
    password.required = Password is required
    login.attempts = You have exceeded the number of attempts, wait {0} minutes and try again

    How can I replace {0} in the jsp???

  • dida

    while the validate() method call addFieldError() or addActionError();
    LoginAction will return a Sting “input”?

    so struts.xml must have a result named “input”?

  • A

    I’m about errors, sorry :)

    • mkyong

      Sorry, don’t get you??

  • A

    good, but where do you use this properties file?