Spring bean scopes example

In Spring, bean scope is used to decide which type of bean instance should be return from Spring container back to the caller.

5 types of bean scopes supported :

  1. singleton – Return a single bean instance per Spring IoC container
  2. prototype – Return a new bean instance each time when requested
  3. request – Return a single bean instance per HTTP request. *
  4. session – Return a single bean instance per HTTP session. *
  5. globalSession – Return a single bean instance per global HTTP session. *

In most cases, you may only deal with the Spring’s core scope – singleton and prototype, and the default scope is singleton.

P.S * means only valid in the context of a web-aware Spring ApplicationContext

Singleton vs Prototype

Here’s an example to show you what’s the different between bean scope : singleton and prototype.

package com.mkyong.customer.services;
 
public class CustomerService 
{
	String message;
 
	public String getMessage() {
		return message;
	}
 
	public void setMessage(String message) {
		this.message = message;
	}
}

1. Singleton example

If no bean scope is specified in bean configuration file, default to singleton.

<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.5.xsd">
 
       <bean id="customerService" 
            class="com.mkyong.customer.services.CustomerService" />
 
</beans>

Run it

package com.mkyong.common;
 
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;
 
import com.mkyong.customer.services.CustomerService;
 
public class App 
{
    public static void main( String[] args )
    {
    	ApplicationContext context = 
    	 new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext(new String[] {"Spring-Customer.xml"});
 
    	CustomerService custA = (CustomerService)context.getBean("customerService");
    	custA.setMessage("Message by custA");
    	System.out.println("Message : " + custA.getMessage());
 
    	//retrieve it again
    	CustomerService custB = (CustomerService)context.getBean("customerService");
    	System.out.println("Message : " + custB.getMessage());
    }
}

Output

Message : Message by custA
Message : Message by custA

Since the bean ‘customerService’ is in singleton scope, the second retrieval by ‘custB’ will display the message set by ‘custA’ also, even it’s retrieve by a new getBean() method. In singleton, only a single instance per Spring IoC container, no matter how many time you retrieve it with getBean(), it will always return the same instance.

2. Prototype example

If you want a new ‘customerService’ bean instance, every time you call it, use prototype instead.

<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.5.xsd">
 
   <bean id="customerService" class="com.mkyong.customer.services.CustomerService" 
         scope="prototype"/>
 
</beans>

Run it again

Message : Message by custA
Message : null

In prototype scope, you will have a new instance for each getBean() method called.

3. Bean scopes annotation

You can also use annotation to define your bean scope.

package com.mkyong.customer.services;
 
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Scope;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
 
@Service
@Scope("prototype")
public class CustomerService 
{
	String message;
 
	public String getMessage() {
		return message;
	}
 
	public void setMessage(String message) {
		this.message = message;
	}
}

Enable auto component scanning

<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.5.xsd
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
	http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-2.5.xsd">
 
       <context:component-scan base-package="com.mkyong.customer" />
 
</beans>

Download Source Code

Download It – Spring-Bean-Scopes-Example.zip (7 KB)

Reference

  1. http://static.springsource.org/spring/docs/2.0.x/reference/beans.html#beans-factory-scopes
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About the Author

mkyong
Founder of Mkyong.com and HostingCompass.com, love Java and open source stuff. Follow him on Twitter, or befriend him on Facebook or Google Plus. If you like my tutorials, consider make a donation to these charities.

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