Spring 3 MVC ContentNegotiatingViewResolver example

Spring 3, ContentNegotiatingViewResolver, is an interesting view resolver, which allow you to output a same resource (content or data) to different type of views like JSP, XML, RSS, JSON and etc. Put it simple, see following web requested URL, which will return in different views.

  1. http://www.mkyong.com/fruit/banana.rss , returned as RSS file.
  2. http://www.mkyong.com/fruit/banana.xml , returned as XML file.
  3. http://www.mkyong.com/fruit/banana.json , returned as JSON file.
  4. http://www.mkyong.com/fruit/banana, returned to your default view resolver.
Note
This ContentNegotiatingViewResolver first determine “which view resolver should return by file extension”, if no view is match, then use the default view resolver. Read this Spring documentation to study how it works.

In this tutorial, we show you how to use ContentNegotiatingViewResolver. At the end of this tutorial, a same model will be returned in different views – XML, JSON, RSS and JSP, based on it’s requested file extension.

Technologies used :

  1. Spring 3.0.5.RELEASE
  2. Jackson 1.7.1
  3. Rome 1.0.0
  4. JDK 1.6
  5. Maven 3
  6. Eclipse 3.6
Note
JAXB is bundled in JDK1.6, so, you don’t need to include it manually.

1. Project Dependency

Declares following dependencies in your Maven pom.xml file.


	<properties>
		<spring.version>3.0.5.RELEASE</spring.version>
	</properties>

	<dependencies>

		<!-- Spring 3 dependencies -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-core</artifactId>
			<version>${spring.version}</version>
		</dependency>

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-web</artifactId>
			<version>${spring.version}</version>
		</dependency>

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
			<version>${spring.version}</version>
		</dependency>

		<!-- Jackson JSON Mapper -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.codehaus.jackson</groupId>
			<artifactId>jackson-mapper-asl</artifactId>
			<version>1.7.1</version>
		</dependency>

		<!-- RSS -->
		<dependency>
			<groupId>net.java.dev.rome</groupId>
			<artifactId>rome</artifactId>
			<version>1.0.0</version>
		</dependency>

	</dependencies>

</project>

2. Model

A Pojo, annotated with JAXB annotation, so that it can output in XML file. Besides, later we use this model to display in different views.


package com.mkyong.common.model;

import javax.xml.bind.annotation.XmlElement;
import javax.xml.bind.annotation.XmlRootElement;

@XmlRootElement(name = "fruit")
public class Fruit {

	String name;
	int quality;

	public String getName() {
		return name;
	}

	@XmlElement
	public void setName(String name) {
		this.name = name;
	}

	public int getQuality() {
		return quality;
	}

	@XmlElement
	public void setQuality(int quality) {
		this.quality = quality;
	}

	public Fruit(String name, int quality) {
		this.name = name;
		this.quality = quality;
	}

	public Fruit() {
	}

}

3. JSON and XML View

To output JSON and XML views, you don’t need to do any extra works, Spring MVC will handle the conversion automatically. Read this Spring MVC and XML, and Spring MVC and JSON examples.

4. RSS View

To output RSS View, you need to extend AbstractRssFeedView. Read this Spring 3 MVC and RSS example to know how it works.


package com.mkyong.common.rss;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.view.feed.AbstractRssFeedView;
import com.mkyong.common.model.Fruit;
import com.sun.syndication.feed.rss.Channel;
import com.sun.syndication.feed.rss.Content;
import com.sun.syndication.feed.rss.Item;

public class RssFeedView extends AbstractRssFeedView {

	@Override
	protected void buildFeedMetadata(Map<String, Object> model, Channel feed,
		HttpServletRequest request) {
		
		feed.setTitle("Sample Title");
		feed.setDescription("Sample Description");
		feed.setLink("http://google.com");
		
		super.buildFeedMetadata(model, feed, request);
	}
	
	
	@Override
	protected List<Item> buildFeedItems(Map<String, Object> model,
			HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
			throws Exception {
		
		Fruit fruit = (Fruit) model.get("model");
		String msg = fruit.getName() + fruit.getQuality();
		
		List<Item> items = new ArrayList<Item>(1);
		Item item = new Item();
		item.setAuthor("mkyong");
		item.setLink("http://www.mkyong.com");
		
		Content content = new Content();
		content.setValue(msg);
		
		item.setContent(content);
		
		items.add(item);
		
		return items;
	}
}

5. JSP View

A JSP page to display the model data.

File : list.jsp


<html>
<body>
	<h1>Spring @MVC ContentNegotiatingViewResolver</h1>
	
	Fruit Name : ${model.name} <br />
	Fruit Quality : ${model.quality}
	
</body>
</html>

6. Controller

Spring controller, to generate a “fruit” model and return it.


package com.mkyong.common.controller;

import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.ui.ModelMap;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;
import com.mkyong.common.model.Fruit;

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/fruit")
public class FruitController {

	@RequestMapping(value="{fruitName}", method = RequestMethod.GET)
	public String getFruit(@PathVariable String fruitName, ModelMap model) {

		Fruit fruit = new Fruit(fruitName, 1000);
		model.addAttribute("model", fruit);
		
		return "list";

	}
	
}

7. ContentNegotiatingViewResolver example

The code should be self-explanatory. However, you have to define the “order” property, where lower value get higher priority. In this case, when a URL is requested, Spring MVC will use “ContentNegotiatingViewResolver” (order=1) to return a suitable view (based on file extension declared in “mediaTypes” property), if not match, then use “InternalResourceViewResolver” (order=2) to return a default JSP page.


<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc" 
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans     
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context 
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-3.0.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-3.0.xsd">

	<context:component-scan base-package="com.mkyong.common.controller" />

	<mvc:annotation-driven />

	<bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.ContentNegotiatingViewResolver">
	  <property name="order" value="1" />
	  <property name="mediaTypes">
		<map>
		   <entry key="json" value="application/json" />
		   <entry key="xml" value="application/xml" />
		   <entry key="rss" value="application/rss+xml" />
		</map>
	  </property>

	  <property name="defaultViews">
		<list>
		  <!-- JSON View -->
		  <bean
			class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.json.MappingJacksonJsonView">
		  </bean>

		  <!-- RSS View -->
		  <bean class="com.mkyong.common.rss.RssFeedView" />

		  <!-- JAXB XML View -->
		  <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.xml.MarshallingView">
			<constructor-arg>
				<bean class="org.springframework.oxm.jaxb.Jaxb2Marshaller">
				   <property name="classesToBeBound">
					<list>
					   <value>com.mkyong.common.model.Fruit</value>
					</list>
				   </property>
				</bean>
			</constructor-arg>
		  </bean>
		 </list>
	  </property>
	  <property name="ignoreAcceptHeader" value="true" />

	</bean>

	<!-- If no extension matched, use JSP view -->
	<bean
		class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver">
		<property name="order" value="2" />
		<property name="prefix">
			<value>/WEB-INF/pages/</value>
		</property>
		<property name="suffix">
			<value>.jsp</value>
		</property>
	</bean>

</beans>

8. Demo

Same model and display in different views, via ContentNegotiatingViewResolver.

http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana.xml , display as XML file.

spring mvc and xml demo

http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana.json , display as JSON file.

spring mvc and json demo

http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana.rss , display as RSS file.

spring mvc and RSS demo

http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana , display as JSP page.

spring mvc and JSP demo

Download Source Code

References

About the Author

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mkyong
Founder of Mkyong.com, love Java and open source stuff. Follow him on Twitter, or befriend him on Facebook or Google Plus. If you like my tutorials, consider make a donation to these charities.

Comments

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Hari SreeLuke KirbyManoj SawantrajeshwebService Recent comment authors
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Deepak
Guest
Deepak

Hi,

It works great when executed in Springs 2.7.1 toolkit but fails with the below error when executed in Springs toolkit 2.9 –

Error:
SEVERE: Context initialization failed
org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name ‘org.springframework.web.servlet.view.ContentNegotiatingViewResolver#0’

rajesh
Guest
rajesh

how to implement it if we are using jdk1.5

lee
Guest
lee

I use @Configuration config
source code
@Bean
public ViewResolver viewResolver() throws JAXBException {
Jaxb2Marshaller marshaller = new Jaxb2Marshaller();
marshaller.setClassesToBeBound(XMLClass1.class, XMLClass2.class);
MarshallingView marshallingView = new MarshallingView(marshaller);
marshaller.setMarshallerProperties(
Collections.singletonMap(javax.xml.bind.Marshaller.JAXB_ENCODING, “GBK”));
contentNegotiatingViewResolver.setDefaultViews(Arrays.asList(marshallingView));

//but xml delecaration always ” xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″ standalone=”yes”
}

how to do change others encoding

prasad
Guest
prasad

I want to use the above example with tiles view. Please let me know how can i use tiles view along with all other views

Abhishek
Guest
Abhishek

Hello MKYong,
Thanks for the example,Very Helpful.

I’ve created a clientApp for your “spring-3-mvc-contentnegotiationviewresolver-example”, here i’ve created a same class as your example class “Banana.java”.
I want to map the response of this “http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana.json” to my Banana class.
The exception i’m facing with this is getting an Unrecognized property named “model” in your response. Please help me to resolve this.

Code:-
String url = “http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana.json”;
Banana banana = restTemplate.getForObject(url,Banana.class);

spring-config.xml is having MappingJacksonHttpMessageConverter configured with RestTemplate.

Problem:- Response is having an Extra Element named “model” that is not in our Banana class.

please assist.

jnh1983
Guest
jnh1983

It seems not work in my local.
Due miss the spring-oxm dependency

org.springframework
spring-oxm
${spring.version}

I use spring => 3.2.2.RELEASE.

jnh1983
Guest
jnh1983

<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-oxm</artifactId>
<version>${spring.version}</version>
</dependency>

Fei
Guest
Fei

Hi all

I am just change property name=”packagesToScan” instead of “classesToBeBound”
for org.springframework.oxm.jaxb.Jaxb2Marshaller
however it’s not working. error shows bellow javax.servlet.ServletException: Unable to locate object to be marshalled in model:

any suggestion?
Thanks all

Aleksander
Guest
Aleksander

Hello,

Let’s say that we have also vegetable controller, and for vegetable controller we would like use a different implementation of AbstractRssFeedView. Is it possible to tell the ContentNegotiatingViewResolver to use different implementation for different controllers

IF fruit USE com.mkyong.common.rss.RssFeedView
IF vegetable USE com.mkyong.common.rss.SpecialVegetableRssFeedView

I cannot find an example

Thank You

Vinnie
Guest
Vinnie

The article was very good, but I have a couple of quick questions if you would be kind enough to answer 1. what is the function or ‘return “list”;’ in the controller? It seems that the view resolver takes its direction from the url extension or the default phrase. What does it do here? 2. If I try to parse the json in a client, I receive an error parsing {“Fruit”:{“name”:”banana”,”quality”:1000}} If in my client, I do this ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper(); Fruit fruit = mapper.readValue(entity.getContent(), Fruit.class); or even Fruit[] fruit = mapper.readValue(entity.getContent(), Fruit[].class); I get an exception “Caused… Read more »

Vinnie
Guest
Vinnie

This was a very good article, and really helped me out.
There are two things that might be obvious, but not to me:

1. What is the value of the ‘return “list”;’ in the controller? It seems like the view resolver bases all information on the Accept header or default.

2. I wrote a client to consume the services, but it really doesn’t like the json format
{“Fruit”:{“name”:”banana”,”quality”:1000}}

If I try to read this even as a simple junit test, it can’t parse the json
ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper();
Fruit fruit = mapper.readValue(entity.getContent(), Fruit.class);

trackback
Configuring Spring MVC for AJAX to enable SEO | Krishna's Blog

[…] MVC so as a first step, I wanted to explore if Spring supports SEO. I found a blog from MKYong Spring 3 MVC ContentNegotiatingViewResolver example. We tried this example and it was slightly complicated to setup our application using this […]

Ab
Guest
Ab

Hi Mkyong,
This is really a great post and very helpful. Is it possible to do everything in one method. For example:
i have one end point which serves as XML, json or html.

Thanks

Satya Prakash
Guest
Satya Prakash

Can any one tell me the reason why we are invoking with http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana.xml
http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana.rss
http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana.json {.xml,.rss,.json } extensions..after all banana is the value as the input..

I would like to get response as XML with http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana this URL what should i do? Please help me out……

Vishal
Guest
Vishal

Hi I am getting following error when hit the url ‘http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/banana.xml’.

Unable to locate object to be marshalled in model {org.springframework.validation.BindingResult.model=org.springframework.validation.BeanPropertyBindingResult: 0 errors, model=com.mkyong.common.model.Fruit@169f57e}

Pls Help.

Naveen
Guest
Naveen

You can use public @ResponseBody Banana getFruit(){}
and must be incluided in your xml file(dispatche-servlet)

Naveen
Guest
Naveen

must be included in your dispatcher servlet

Naveen
Guest
Naveen
sHaKeR
Guest
sHaKeR

Hi,

To get rid of model you just need to create a new class which will extend MappingJacksonJsonView and override filterModel method.

Then, in you dispatcher.xml you need to update your bean class “org.springframework.web.servlet.view.json.MappingJacksonJsonView” to the new one you just created.

Hope it will help.

ommys
Guest
ommys

I cant run this application.
when i type url “http://localhost:8080/SpringMVC/fruit/mango.xml”
i got error Handler processing failed; nested exception is java.lang.NoSuchMethodError: org.springframework.oxm.Marshaller.supports(Ljava/lang/Class;)Z
please help me out..

sHaKeR
Guest
sHaKeR

Hi,

Do you have this in your pom.xml:

org.springframework.ws
spring-ws
1.5.0

?

Did you do “mvn install”? Did it work?

sHaKeR
Guest
sHaKeR

Hi Mkyong, First I would like to thank you for your posts on your website! You did a great job! About this ContentNegotiatingViewResolver, I’d like to know if it’s possible to put a list of object in the modelMap instead of a simple Object. If yes, what sould be the code to iterate on list on JSP side. Fro example, something like this: @Controller @RequestMapping("/fruit") public class FruitController { @RequestMapping(value="{id}", method = RequestMethod.GET) public String getFruitById(@PathVariable BigDecimal id, ModelMap model) { final ApplicationContext appContext = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("SpringBeans.xml"); FruitBo fruitBo = (FruitBo) appContext.getBean("fruitBo"); Fruit f = fruitBo.findById(id); model.addAttribute(f); return "fruit"; }… Read more »

Manoj Sawant
Guest
Manoj Sawant

Yes You can do that, 1)- In “dispatcher-servlet.xml” – viewResolver bean add this property . 2)- in FruitController replace – model.addAttribute(fruit); with model.put(“fruitList”, fruit); // key Value Pair. 3)- In Jsp page you have to import JSTL Libraries like below . and 4)- put your list and itrate over it in jsp page using JSTL like below : ${FRUIT.name} ${FRUIT.quality} All The Best…!!!

James
Guest
James

Is there anyone who find the solution to get rid of “model” in json result?

Deepak
Guest
Deepak

@James: Just try to return the resultant data in a List.

James
Guest
James

Thanks Deepak but I don’t understand your explanation.
Do you means that return the data itself rather than “list”?
But the method getFruit returns String type, how can I return Fruit type which is variable fruit .

public class FruitController {

@RequestMapping(value=”{fruitName}”, method = RequestMethod.GET)
public String getFruit(@PathVariable String fruitName, ModelMap model) {

Fruit fruit = new Fruit(fruitName, 1000);
model.addAttribute(“model”, fruit);

return “list”;

}

}
Please let me know if I understood wrong.
Thanks

hunterXue
Guest
hunterXue

I have the same question.Does anyone know how to do get ride of the annoying {‘model’

trackback
????spring web-mvc?????xml/json????? | Hao's Blog

[…] Spring 3 MVC ContentNegotiatingViewResolver Example […]

Graeme Dougal
Guest
Graeme Dougal

Hi

Great post, exactly what I was looking for :-)

However, it all works except for the jsp view… just get a 404 and a message in the log saying..

WARNING: No mapping found for HTTP request with URI [/view-resolver/WEB-INF/pages/list.jsp] in DispatcherServlet with name ‘view-resolver’

Any ideas ?

Cheers
Graeme

Graeme Dougal
Guest
Graeme Dougal

Ooops My bad…. created my own version of the project and had /* in the servlet mapping instead of /

Interesting though that it only causes the jsp view to fail

Luke Kirby
Guest
Luke Kirby

I had the same issue as you but now I’ve changed the servlet mapping to / it works great now. I guess only the jsp was failing as the .json and .xml url’s had an extension where as /fruit doesn’t have an extension but it now means no need for .htm or .do in urls :)

Aza
Guest
Aza

Hi,

Don’t work for post method.I wan’t post method example.Help me.

Sebastian Rajo
Guest
Sebastian Rajo

Hi. Very nice post. Now, I have a question: there is a way of avoid to display the attribute name on the JSON view? I mean, in this example, I don’t want to see ‘{“model”:’

Thanks!

James
Guest
James

Is there anyone who find the solution to get rid of “model”?

Thirumal
Guest
Thirumal

servlet file here again <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.ContentNegotiatingViewResolver"> <property name="order" value="1" /> <property name="mediaTypes"> <map> <entry key="xml" value="application/xml" /> <!-- <entry key="json" value="application/json" /> --> </map> </property> <property name="defaultViews"> <list> <!-- JSON View --> <!-- <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.json.MappingJacksonJsonView"> </bean> --> <!-- XStream XML View --> <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.xml.MarshallingView"> <constructor-arg> <bean class="org.springframework.oxm.xstream.XStreamMarshaller"> <property name="aliases"> <props> <prop key="VPNSMessage">com.twc.vpns.model.messenger.VPNSMessage</prop> </props> </property> </bean> </constructor-arg> </bean> </list> </property> <!-- <property name="ignoreAcceptHeader" value="true" /> --> </bean>

Thirumal
Guest
Thirumal

First, it is a great article, I appreciate your efforts and passion. I am trying exactly similar to your post, but xstream parser. Even with json portion commented, I always get json content only no matter what extension is specified at the end (.xml/.json). I was wondering should I move using JAXB instead xstream Here is the servlet.xml file <!– –> <!– –> com.xyz.model.messenger.XYZMessage <!– –> @RequestMapping(value = “/publishMessage”, method = RequestMethod.POST) @ResponseBody public XYZMessage publishMessage(@RequestBody String xml) { //System.out.println(“Message Received–>” + xml); log.debug(“Publish Message Received\n” + xml); XYZMessage XYZMessage = XStreamParser.convertToXYZMessage(xml); try{ MessageValidator.validatePublishedMessage(vpnsMessage); }catch(Exception e){ } return XYZMessage ;… Read more »

webService
Guest
webService

in your controller, try remove @Responsebody for the .xml

Jeff
Guest
Jeff

Great article, one of the best I have found. One question – what if I want to restrict the content type for a particular controller. For example I want a controller to only respond only to json request. I edited the mvc-dispatcher-servlet.xml to respect headers: and created a controller:

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/api")
public class ApiController {

@RequestMapping(value="{aName}", method = RequestMethod.GET, headers = {"Accept=application/json"})
	public String doApi(@PathVariable String aName,	ModelMap model) {

		Fruit fruit = new Fruit(aName, 1000);
		model.addAttribute("model", fruit);
		
		return "list";

	}
	
}

but a call to …/api/test.json yields
HTTP Status 404, The requested resource () is not available.

Is this a possible tasks?

Thanks!

Nagaraj
Guest
Nagaraj

If i change RequestMethod.GET to RequestMethod.Post rss feed opening as new file in browser . Can anypone help me. I need to pass 3 RSS feed url from UI to backend using post method. Here I am getting problem.

Hari Sree
Guest
Hari Sree

I have Error happen at rssfeed. java class i update jar not resolved

org.springframework.beans.factory.CannotLoadBeanClassException: Cannot find class [com.mkyong.common.rss.RssFeedView] for bean with name ‘com.mkyong.common.rss.RssFeedView#660e0f08’ defined in ServletContext resource [/WEB-INF/spring-dispatcher-servlet.xml]; nested exception is java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: com.mkyong.common.rss.RssFeedView
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractBeanFactory.resolveBeanClass(AbstractBeanFactory.java:1351)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.createBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:455)
at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.BeanDefinitionValueResolver.resolveInnerBean(BeanDefinitionValueResolver.java:299)
… 39 more

Caused by: java.l