Hibernate has a powerful feature called ‘interceptor‘ to intercept or hook different kind of Hibernate events, like database CRUD operation. In this article, i will demonstrate how to implement an application audit log feature by using Hibernate interceptor, it will log all the Hibernate save, update or delete operations into a database table named ‘auditlog‘.

Hibernate interceptor example – audit log

1. Create a table

Create a table called ‘auditlog’ to store all the application audited records.

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `mkyong`.`auditlog`;
CREATE TABLE  `mkyong`.`auditlog` (
  `AUDIT_LOG_ID` BIGINT(20) UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `ACTION` VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL,
  `DETAIL` text NOT NULL,
  `CREATED_DATE` DATE NOT NULL,
  `ENTITY_ID` BIGINT(20) UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
  `ENTITY_NAME` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`AUDIT_LOG_ID`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=9 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

2. Create a marker interface

Create a marker interface, any classes which implemented this interface will be audit. This interface requires that the implemented class to expose it identifier – getId() and the content to log – ‘getLogDeatil()‘. All exposed data will be store into database.

package com.mkyong.interceptor;
//market interface
public interface IAuditLog {
 
	public Long getId();	
	public String getLogDeatil();
}

3. Map the ‘auditlog’ table

A normal annotation model file to map with table ‘auditlog’.

@Entity
@Table(name = "auditlog", catalog = "mkyong")
public class AuditLog implements java.io.Serializable {
 
	private Long auditLogId;
	private String action;
	private String detail;
	private Date createdDate;
	private long entityId;
	private String entityName;
        ...
}

4. A class implemented the IAuditLog

A normal annotation model file to map with table ‘stock’, which will use for interceptor demo later. It have to implemented the IAuditLog marker interface and implement the getId() and getLogDeatil() method.

...
@Entity
@Table(name = "stock", catalog = "mkyong"
public class Stock implements java.io.Serializable, IAuditLog {
...
        @Transient
	@Override
	public Long getId(){
		return this.stockId.longValue();
	}
 
	@Transient
	@Override
	public String getLogDeatil(){
		StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
		sb.append(" Stock Id : ").append(stockId)
		.append(" Stock Code : ").append(stockCode)
		.append(" Stock Name : ").append(stockName);
 
		return sb.toString();
	}
...

5. Create a Helper class

A helper class to accept the data from interceptor and store it into database.

...
public class AuditLogUtil{
 
   public static void LogIt(String action,
     IAuditLog entity, Connection conn ){
 
     Session tempSession = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().openSession(conn);
 
     try {
 
	AuditLog auditRecord = new AuditLog(action,entity.getLogDeatil()
		, new Date(),entity.getId(), entity.getClass().toString());
	tempSession.save(auditRecord);
	tempSession.flush();
 
     } finally {	
	tempSession.close();		
     }		
  }
}

6. Create a Hibernate interceptor class

Create a interceptor class by extends the Hibernate EmptyInterceptor. Here is the most popular interceptor function.

  • onSave – Called when you save an object, the object is not save into database yet.
  • onFlushDirty – Called when you update an object, the object is not update into database yet.
  • onDelete – Called when you delete an object, the object is not delete into database yet.
  • preFlush – Called before the saved, updated or deleted objects are committed to database (usually before postFlush).
  • postFlush – Called after the saved, updated or deleted objects are committed to database.

The code is quite verbose, it should self-exploratory.

...
public class AuditLogInterceptor extends EmptyInterceptor{
 
	Session session;
	private Set inserts = new HashSet();
	private Set updates = new HashSet();
	private Set deletes = new HashSet();
 
	public void setSession(Session session) {
		this.session=session;
	}
 
	public boolean onSave(Object entity,Serializable id,
		Object[] state,String[] propertyNames,Type[] types)
		throws CallbackException {
 
		System.out.println("onSave");
 
		if (entity instanceof IAuditLog){
			inserts.add(entity);
		}
		return false;
 
	}
 
	public boolean onFlushDirty(Object entity,Serializable id,
		Object[] currentState,Object[] previousState,
		String[] propertyNames,Type[] types)
		throws CallbackException {
 
		System.out.println("onFlushDirty");
 
		if (entity instanceof IAuditLog){
			updates.add(entity);
		}
		return false;
 
	}
 
	public void onDelete(Object entity, Serializable id, 
		Object[] state, String[] propertyNames, 
		Type[] types) {
 
		System.out.println("onDelete");
 
		if (entity instanceof IAuditLog){
			deletes.add(entity);
		}
	}
 
	//called before commit into database
	public void preFlush(Iterator iterator) {
		System.out.println("preFlush");
	}	
 
	//called after committed into database
	public void postFlush(Iterator iterator) {
		System.out.println("postFlush");
 
	try{
 
		for (Iterator it = inserts.iterator(); it.hasNext();) {
		    IAuditLog entity = (IAuditLog) it.next();
		    System.out.println("postFlush - insert");		
		    AuditLogUtil.LogIt("Saved",entity, session.connection());
		}	
 
		for (Iterator it = updates.iterator(); it.hasNext();) {
		    IAuditLog entity = (IAuditLog) it.next();
		    System.out.println("postFlush - update");
		    AuditLogUtil.LogIt("Updated",entity, session.connection());
		}	
 
		for (Iterator it = deletes.iterator(); it.hasNext();) {
		    IAuditLog entity = (IAuditLog) it.next();
		    System.out.println("postFlush - delete");
		    AuditLogUtil.LogIt("Deleted",entity, session.connection());
		}	
 
	} finally {
		inserts.clear();
		updates.clear();
		deletes.clear();
	}
       }		
}

7.Enabling the interceptor

You can enable the interceptor by pass it as an argument to openSession(interceptor);.

...
   Session session = null;
   Transaction tx = null;
   try {
 
	AuditLogInterceptor interceptor = new AuditLogInterceptor();
	session = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().openSession(interceptor);
	interceptor.setSession(session);
 
	//test insert
	tx = session.beginTransaction();
	Stock stockInsert = new Stock();
	stockInsert.setStockCode("1111");
	stockInsert.setStockName("mkyong");
	session.saveOrUpdate(stockInsert);
	tx.commit();
 
	//test update
	tx = session.beginTransaction();
	Query query = session.createQuery("from Stock where stockCode = '1111'");
	Stock stockUpdate = (Stock)query.list().get(0);
	stockUpdate.setStockName("mkyong-update");
	session.saveOrUpdate(stockUpdate);
	tx.commit();
 
	//test delete
	tx = session.beginTransaction();
	session.delete(stockUpdate);
	tx.commit();
 
   } catch (RuntimeException e) {
	try {
		tx.rollback();
	} catch (RuntimeException rbe) {
		// log.error("Couldn’t roll back transaction", rbe);
   }
	throw e;
   } finally {
	if (session != null) {
		session.close();
	}
   }
...

In insert test

session.saveOrUpdate(stockInsert); //it will call onSave
tx.commit(); // it will call preFlush follow by postFlush

In update test

session.saveOrUpdate(stockUpdate); //it will call onFlushDirty
tx.commit(); // it will call preFlush follow by postFlush

In delete test

session.delete(stockUpdate); //it will call onDelete
tx.commit();  // it will call preFlush follow by postFlush
Output
onSave
Hibernate: 
    insert into mkyong.stock
    (STOCK_CODE, STOCK_NAME) 
    values (?, ?)
preFlush
postFlush
postFlush - insert
Hibernate: 
    insert into mkyong.auditlog
    (ACTION, CREATED_DATE, DETAIL, ENTITY_ID, ENTITY_NAME) 
    values (?, ?, ?, ?, ?)
preFlush
Hibernate: 
    select ...
    from mkyong.stock stock0_ 
    where stock0_.STOCK_CODE='1111'
preFlush
onFlushDirty
Hibernate: 
    update mkyong.stock 
    set STOCK_CODE=?, STOCK_NAME=? 
    where STOCK_ID=?
postFlush
postFlush - update
Hibernate: 
    insert into mkyong.auditlog
    (ACTION, CREATED_DATE, DETAIL, ENTITY_ID, ENTITY_NAME) 
    values (?, ?, ?, ?, ?)
onDelete
preFlush
Hibernate: 
    delete from mkyong.stock where STOCK_ID=?
postFlush
postFlush - delete
Hibernate: 
    insert into mkyong.auditlog 
    (ACTION, CREATED_DATE, DETAIL, ENTITY_ID, ENTITY_NAME) 
    values (?, ?, ?, ?, ?)
In database
SELECT * FROM auditlog a;

All audited data are inserted into database.

interceptor-example

Conclusion

The audit logs is a useful feature that is often handled in database by using triggers, but i would recommend to use application to implement it for the portability concern.

Download this example – Hibernate interceptor example.zip
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